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The body of Stromectol is usually white, brown or orange-red, elongated, sometimes somewhat flattened, more often cylindrical, tapering towards the posterior end. At the anterior end of the body there is a cylindrical, less often spherical, retractable proboscis, armed with hooks of various shapes. The chitinized hooks of the proboscis can be arranged in spiral rows or in a checkerboard pattern, with the spiral and longitudinal rows clearly visible. The proboscis is the main organ of attachment of the parasite to the intestinal wall of the host. The base of the proboscis is never covered with hooks and is called the neck.

The proboscis, with the help of special muscles, is drawn into the cavity of the proboscis sheath, which is a cylindrical muscular bag that descends into the neck and body. Near the neck, paired organs begin - lemniscus, lying on the sides of the proboscis sheath. It is assumed that the lemniscus contribute to the retraction and extension of the proboscis. The body is covered with a cuticle and is a sac-like formation, in the cavity of which the internal organs are enclosed.

Acanthocephalans are more common in freshwater, less often in marine fish. Some of them cause pathological changes in the intestinal wall, accompanied by the death of the fish. Spikes are located on the surface of the body, more often in the anterior part.

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The skin-muscle sac consists of circular and longitudinal layers of stromectol . The nervous system is represented by the central ganglion, which lies inside the proboscis sheath, and two trunks extending from it to the proboscis and paired lateral posterior nerves. The digestive system is absent, nutrition is carried out by osmosis. The excretory system is represented by ciliated cells, channels extending from them, flowing into the common duct.

Acanthocephalans are dioecious. Males are usually smaller than females. The male has 2 testes with excretory ducts, cement glands, genital and copulatory bursa, and a copulatory organ - the penis. The bursa turns outward during copulation. Cement glands secrete a sticky secret that seals the female's genital opening after copulation. The female has 2 ovaries, which at an early stage of development break up into separate groups of stromectol.

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The excretory apparatus are the uterine bell, oviducts, uterus and vagina. The cavity of the uterine bell communicates with the body cavity where the eggs develop. 2 oviducts depart from the uterine bell, opening into the uterus. The uterus is followed by the vagina, which opens at the posterior end of the body. The acanthocephalan eggs are elongated-oval, almost fusiform. The embryonic development of the acanthocephalans takes place in the egg, which is still in the body cavity of the female. An egg containing an embryonic larva is secreted into the intestines of the fish, and from it into the water.

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There is no free-living phase in the external environment in the cycle of development of Stromectol. The development of acanthocephalans takes place with the participation of intermediate hosts, as a rule, crustaceans: amphipods, water donkeys, barnacles. The intermediate host swallows the egg. In the intestines of the crustacean, a larva, called an acanthor, emerges from the egg.

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Akantor passes through the intestinal wall of the crustacean into the cavity of its body and is surrounded by a shell. Here it develops further, an acanthella is formed, resembling an adult worm with a retracted proboscis and underdeveloped genitals. Fish become infected by eating crustaceans infected with acanthellae. Fish can be the definitive and reservoir host of acanthocephalans.

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For corynozoans, fish is a reservoir host. They can accumulate in the muscles of fish in large quantities (up to 100 specimens or more) and significantly worsen the quality of fish products. Fish meat affected by corinosomes must be thermally treated even when fed to fur-bearing animals.

The causative agent of macracanthorhynchosis is a giant acanthocephalan with a spindle-shaped body. At the stage of puberty, it parasitizes in the intestines of various mammals. The development of the parasite occurs with the obligatory participation of intermediate hosts - May beetles, bronze beetles, ground beetles, rhinoceros beetles, furrow-toothed dung beetle, Far Eastern marble bronze beetle.

Acanthocephalosis - helminthiases caused by spiny-headed worms - acanthocephalus, or acanthocephalus, which usually parasitize in the intestines of pigs, carnivores, birds, fish. The most common and dangerous for animals and humans are macracanthorhynchosis and monilimorphosis.

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Sexually mature acanthocephalans are localized in the intestines and pyloric appendages of fish and cause significant damage to them. Deeply piercing the proboscis into the intestinal wall, the acanthocephalans cause its inflammation, sometimes penetrating into the body cavity. Wall deformity, hemorrhage, acute anemia are commonlya consequence of infection of fish with acanthocephalans.

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